• Types of Bleeding
  • External Bleeding
  • First-Aid for External Bleeding
  • First-Aid for Extreme External Bleeding
  • Internal Bleeding
  • First-Aid for Simple Bruise
  • First-Aid for More Severe Injury

Type of Bleeding:

Arterial bleeding: loss of blood from an artery, which is a blood vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart through the body. Blood will spurt with each heartbeat. Color is bright red. Usually severe and hard to control. Need immediate attention.

Venous bleeding: loss of blood from a vein, which is a blood vessel that carries blood without oxygen back to the heart. It has a steady flow. Color is dark red. Easier to control than arterial bleeding.

Capillary bleeding: the loss of blood from capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels. Blood flow is usually slow. Threat of infection is greater with capillary bleeding than it is with arterial or venous bleeding.

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External Bleeding:

Abrasion: Damage to the skin from a scrape by a hard surface.

Incision: Sharp, even cuts from sharp objects, possibly resulting in heavy bleeding and damage to muscles, tendons, and nerves.

Lacerations: Jagged or torn soft tissues usually caused by objects having sharp, irregular edges or by force exerted against the body. Tissue damage is greater than in incisions.

Punctures: Small holes in the tissues with little external bleeding, caused by pointed objects. Possibility of internal bleeding and infection, particularly tetanus infection.

Avulsion: Tissues torn or hanging from the body, accompanied by heavy bleeding.

Amputations: Complete removal of body extremities. Removed part should be wrapped in a moist dressing and placed in a plastic bag. The bag should be placed in ice water and transported with the victim to possibly be reattached.

Crushing: Parts of the body caught between heavy objects. Includes bone fractures as well as injuries to internal organs, and possible heavy external and internal bleeding.

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First-Aid for External Bleeding:

  1. Apply direct pressure on the wound with a clean dressing. It will protect the wound and help control the bleeding by absorbing the blood and allowing it to clot. Once you put a dressing on a wound, do not remove it. If bleeding continues, add new dressing on top of the one already soaked with blood. If you don’t have a clean dressing or cloth, apply pressure with your hand.
  2. If bleeding continues and you do not suspect a fracture, elevate the wound above the level of the heart and continue to apply direct pressure.
  3. If bleeding still does not stop, apply pressure at the pressure point at the brachial artery by squeezing the artery against the underlying bone.
  4. Final step is to apply a pressure bandage to hold a dressing in place, restrain movement, and help stop bleeding. Apply pressure while wrapping the bandage over the dressing to keep pressure on the wound and slow the bleeding. Take the pulse and examine the fingertips in the injured limb after wrapping the bandage to make sure the bandage is not so tight that it slows or stops circulation. If too tight the pulse rate may be slowed or absent and the fingertips or toes may look bluish.


Pressure Bandages:


QuickClot Sport Advanced Clotting Sponge & Trauma Pak:


Non-Traditional Methods:

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First-Aid For Extreme External Bleeding:

First-Aid for extreme external bleeding, such as arterial bleeding or amputation:



Quickclot Combat Gauze Clotting Agent:

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Internal Bleeding:

Internal bleeding ranges from small bruises to conditions serious enough to cause shock, heart failure, or lung failure. If the victim is not properly checked, internal bleeding may go unnoticed.

Signs and symptoms: bruised, swollen, tender, or rigid abdomen. bruises on chest or signs of fractured ribs, blood in vomit, wounds that have penetrated the chest of abdomen, bleeding from the rectum or vagina, fracture of the pelvis, abnormal pulse and difficult breathing, and cool, moist skin.

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First-Aid For Simple Bruise:

Apply cold packs (not directly on the skin) to the area to prevent tissues from swelling and to slow internal bleeding.

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First-Aid For More Severe Internal Injury:

  1. Get medical help immediately.
  2. Keep victim still.
  3. Control all external bleeding.
  4. Care for shock.
  5. Loosen tight-fitting clothing.
  6. If victim is vomiting, place victim lying down on his or her side so that any fluids can drain from the mouth easily.

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